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Published May 2013 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

A green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles from honey and their use in real-time photoacoustic imaging


Imaging sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) could provide us with critical information about the progression of a cancerous disease. Real-time high-resolution intraoperative photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in conjunction with a near-infrared (NIR) probe may offer opportunities for the immediate imaging for direct identification and resection of SLN or collecting tissue samples. In this work a commercially amenable synthetic methodology is revealed for fabricating luminescent carbon nanoparticles with rapid clearance properties. A one-pot "green" technique is pursued, which involved rapid surface passivation of carbon nanoparticles with organic macromolecules (e.g., polysorbate, polyethyleneglycol) in solvent-free conditions. Interestingly, the naked carbon nanoparticles are derived for the first time, from commercial food grade honey. Surface coated particles are markedly smaller (∼7 nm) than previously explored particles (gold, single-walled carbon nanotubes, copper) for SLN imaging. The results indicate an exceptionally rapid signal enhancement (∼2 min) of the SLN. Owing to their strong optical absorption in the NIR region, tiny size and rapid lymphatic transport, this platform offers great potential for faster resection of SLN and may lower complications caused in axillary investigation by mismarking with dyes or low-resolution imaging techniques.

Additional Information

© 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Received: 11 February 2013; Revised: 14 March 2013; Accepted: 16 March 2013. The financial support from the American Heart Association (AHA) Nos. 0835426N and 11IRG5690011 and National Institutes of Health (NIH) under the Grants Nos. NS059302, CA119342, R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, and U54 Nos. CA136398 and HL073646 and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) under the Grant No. N01CO37007 is greatly appreciated. L.W. and B.S. appreciate the financial support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81101087, 81130028, and 31210103913), China Scholarship Council (No. 2011823056), Science and Technology Research Project of Heilongjiang Education Department (No. 12511325), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M510992) and Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Foundation (No. LBHZ11054), TEM, SEM, and AFM were conducted at the Nano Research Facility, a member of National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network-National Science Foundation (NNIN-NSF) under Grant No. ECS-0335765.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms472746.pdf

Supplemental Material - 12274_2013_308_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 12274_2013_308_MOESM2_ESM.avi


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August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023