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Published September 2015 | Published
Journal Article Open

Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45


We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function Γ = –1.3_(-1.6)^(+0.7) (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence intervals). The VLA observations reveal seven discrete radio sources: we find no overlaps between these sources and the X-ray detected sources. Based on their measured spectral indices and their locations with respect to the visible extent of NGC 45, we classify one source as a candidate radio SNR associated with the galaxy and the others as likely background galaxies seen in projection toward NGC 45. Finally, we discuss the properties of a background cluster of galaxies (denoted as CXOU J001354.2–231254.7) seen in projection toward NGC 45 and detected by the Chandra observations. The fit parameters to the extracted Chandra spectra of this cluster are a column density N_H = 0.07(<0.14) × 10^(22) cm^(−2), a temperature kT = 4.22_(-1.42)^(+2.08) keV, an abundance Z = 0.30(<0.75) relative to solar and a redshift z = 0.28 ± 0.14. From the fit parameters we derive an electron number density n_e = 4(±1) × 10^(−3) cm^(−3), an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L_(0.5-7.0keV) ~ 8.77(±0.96) × 10^(43) erg s^(−1) for the cluster and an X-ray emitting mass M = 2.32(±1.75) × 10^(12)M_☉.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 February 19; accepted 2015 July 2; published 2015 August 27. We thank the anonymous referee for many helpful comments that greatly improved the quality of this paper. T. G. P. thanks Daniela Calzetti, Leslie Hunt, Tom Jarrett and Mark Lacy for useful discussions about the star formation rate and the metallicity of NGC 45. T. G. P. also thanks Daniel Clay Graves for his assistance in reducing the Chandra observations of NGC 45. T. G. P. is also grateful to the NRAO for providing sabbatical support as a visiting scientist at the Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, during which much of this paper was written. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based in part on archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Facilities: Chandra (ACIS), Spitzer (IRAC), VLA

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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023