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Published October 3, 2017 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution


Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is uniquely positioned for biomedical applications because of its ability to visualize optical absorption contrast in vivo in three dimensions. Here we propose motionless volumetric spatially invariant resolution photoacoustic microscopy (SIR-PAM). To realize motionless volumetric imaging, SIR-PAM combines two-dimensional Fourier-spectrum optical excitation with single-element depth-resolved photoacoustic detection. To achieve spatially invariant lateral resolution, propagation-invariant sinusoidal fringes are generated by a digital micromirror device. Further, SIR-PAM achieves 1.5 times finer lateral resolution than conventional PAM. The superior performance was demonstrated in imaging both inanimate objects and animals in vivo with a resolution-invariant axial range of 1.8 mm, 33 times the depth of field of the conventional PAM counterpart. Our work opens new perspectives for PAM in biomedical sciences.

Additional Information

© 2017 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 22 February 2017; Accepted: 01 August 2017; Published online: 03 October 2017. We thank Dr Yan Liu, Toru Imai, Dr Jinyang Liang, Dr Cheng Ma, and Ashton Hemphill for insightful discussions on the work. L. Gong acknowledges the support from China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201506340017). The authors appreciate Prof. James Ballard's critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). Author Contributions: L.V.W. conceived the project. J.Y. and L.G. designed the research, built the system, and performed the experiments. J.Y. wrote the codes for the experiments. X.X. contributed to the system design and manuscript preparation. P.H. performed conventional PAM experiments. J.Y. and Y.Sh. performed PAM experiments in scattering media. Y.Su. performed precursor experiments. J.Y. and L.G. analyzed the experimental results and wrote the manuscript. L.V.W. provided overall supervision. All authors were involved in revising the manuscript. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.

Attached Files

Published - s41467-017-00856-2.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM2_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM3_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM4_ESM.mov

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM5_ESM.mov

Supplemental Material - 41467_2017_856_MOESM6_ESM.mov


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October 17, 2023