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Published September 2014 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA origami lattices using cation-controlled surface diffusion


DNA origami has proven useful for organizing diverse nanoscale components into patterns with 6 nm resolution. However for many applications, such as nanoelectronics, large-scale organization of origami into periodic lattices is desired. Here, we report the self-assembly of DNA origami rectangles into two-dimensional lattices based on stepwise control of surface diffusion, implemented by changing the concentrations of cations on the surface. Previous studies of DNA–mica binding identified the fractional surface density of divalent cations ñ_(s2) as the parameter which best explains the behaviour of linear DNA on mica. We show that for ñ_(s2) between 0.04 and 0.1, over 90% of DNA rectangles were incorporated into lattices and that, compared with other functions of cation concentration, ñ_(s2) best captures the behaviour of DNA rectangles. This work shows how a physical understanding of DNA–mica binding can be used to guide studies of the higher-order assembly of DNA nanostructures, towards creating large-scale arrays of nanodevices for technology.

Additional Information

© 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 26 Feb 2014; Accepted 1 Aug 2014; Published 10 Sep 2014. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from: the US National Science Foundation for Expeditions in Computing funding for the Molecular-Programming Project (No. 0832824, http://molecular-programming.org) and CCF-EMT grants Nos. 0829951 and 0622254; the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) focus center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics (FENA); Microsoft Corporation; Mark Sims of Nanorex Corporation and Army Research Office award W911NF-11-1-0117. S.W. thanks the Benjamin M. Rosen Family Foundation for a graduate fellowship. We thank P. Yin for use of an AFM. Author contributions: S.W. and P.W.K.R. designed experiments, analyzed data and wrote the paper together. S.W. performed all experiments. Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at http://www.nature.com/ naturecommunications. Competing financial interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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