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Published March 2019 | Published
Journal Article Open

High-speed alignment optimization of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on autocovariance analysis in conjunction with orthonormal rectangular polynomials


Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) enables many optical applications by permitting focusing of light through scattering media. However, DOPC systems require precise alignment of all optical components, particularly of the spatial light modulator (SLM) and camera, in order to accurately record the wavefront and perform playback through the use of time-reversal symmetry. We present a digital compensation technique to optimize the alignment of the SLM in five degrees of freedom, permitting focusing through thick scattering media with a thickness of 5 mm and transport scattering coefficient of 2.5  mm  −  1 while simultaneously improving focal quality, as quantified by the peak-to-background ratio, by several orders of magnitude over an unoptimized alignment.

Additional Information

© 2018 The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.. Paper 180238SSR received Apr. 23, 2018; accepted for publication Aug. 6, 2018; published online Aug. 28, 2018. Special Section on Biomedical Imaging and Sensing We thank Jim Ballard for help in revision and editing of the manuscript and Dr. Kimberly Briggman for useful discussions. This work was sponsored by NIH Grants No. DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award) as well as the NIST Intramural Research Program on Optical Medical Imaging. Disclosures: Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

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