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Published May 26, 2008 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer


We present a novel high-frequency photoacoustic microscopy system capable of imaging the microvasculature of living subjects in realtime to depths of a few mm. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate Q-switched pump laser, a tunable dye laser, a 30-MHz linear ultrasound array transducer, a multichannel high-frequency data acquisition system, and a shared-RAM multi-core-processor computer. Data acquisition, beamforming, scan conversion, and display are implemented in realtime at 50 frames per second. Clearly resolvable images of 6-µm-diameter carbon fibers are experimentally demonstrated at 80 µm separation distances. Realtime imaging performance is demonstrated on phantoms and in vivo with absorbing structures identified to depths of 2.5–3 mm. This work represents the first high-frequency realtime photoacoustic imaging system to our knowledge.

Additional Information

© 2008 Optical Society of America. Received 4 Jan 2008; revised 7 Feb 2008; accepted 14 Feb 2008; published 19 May 2008. We gratefully acknowledge helpful discussions with Dr. William D. Richard, who suggested the use of the dual-socket quad-core computers, and Dr. Robert E Morley Jr. and Mr. Ed Richter for allowing us to test the feasibility of our realtime beamforming algorithm on their dual-socket quad core workstations. We thank Dr. Hao Zhang for helpful discussions regarding object oriented programming and Dr. George Stoica for assistance with animal protocols. This work was funded in part by grants R01 EB000712 and R01 NS46214 from National Institutes of Health.

Attached Files

Published - oe-16-11-7915.pdf

Supplemental Material - 7915.AVI

Supplemental Material - 7915_2.AVI

Supplemental Material - 7915_3.AVI

Supplemental Material - 7915_4.AVI


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