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Published August 20, 2020 | Published
Journal Article Open

The Solar Origin of Particle Events Measured by Parker Solar Probe


During the second solar encounter phase of Parker Solar Probe (PSP), two small solar energetic particle (SEP) events were observed by the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun, on 2019 April 2 and 4. At the time, PSP was approaching its second perihelion at a distance of ~24.8 million kilometers from the solar center, it was in near-radial alignment with STEREO-A and in quadrature with Earth. During the two SEP events multiple narrow ejections and a streamer-blowout coronal mass ejection (SBO-CME) originated from a solar region situated eastward of PSP. We analyze remote-sensing observations of the solar corona, and model the different eruptions and how PSP was connected magnetically to the solar atmosphere to determine the possible origin of the two SEP events. We find that the SEP event on April 2 was associated with the two homologous ejections from active region 12738 that included two surges and EUV waves occurring in quick succession. The EUV waves appear to merge and were fast enough to form a shock in the low corona. We show that the April 4 SEP event originates in the SBO-CME. Our modeling work suggests that formation of a weak shock is likely for this CME.

Additional Information

© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 April 29; revised 2020 June 24; accepted 2020 July 8; published 2020 August 18. The IRAP team acknowledges support from the French space agency (Centre National des Etudes Spatiales, CNES; https://cnes.fr/fr) that funds activity in the plasma physics data center (Centre de Donnés de la Physique des Plasmas, CDPP; http://cdpp.eu/) and the Multi Experiment Data & Operation Center (MEDOC; https://idoc.ias.u-psud.fr/MEDOC), and the space weather team in Toulouse (Solar-Terrestrial Observations and Modelling Service, STORMS; http://stormsweb.irap.omp.eu/). This includes funding for the data mining tools AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/), CLWEB (clweb.cesr.fr/) and the propagation tool (http://propagationtool.cdpp.eu). A. Kouloumvakos acknowledge financial support from the ANR project SLOW_SOURCE, ANR−17−CE31−0006−01 as well as COROSHOCK, and FP7 HELCATS project https://www.helcats-fp7.eu/ under the FP7 EU contract number 606692. A. Vourlidas was supported by NASA grants 80NSSC19K1261 and NNX16AH70G. Parker Solar Probe was designed, built, and is now operated by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory as part of NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) program (contract NNN06AA01C). Support from the LWS management and technical team has played a critical role in the success of the Parker Solar Probe mission.

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August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023