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Published December 8, 2008 | Supplemental Material + Updated
Journal Article Open

Synthesis and reactivity of tantalum complexes supported by bidentate X2 and tridentate LX2 ligands with two phenolates linked to pyridine, thiophene, furan, and benzene connectors: mechanistic studies of the formation of a tantalum benzylidene and insertion chemistry for tantalum-carbon bonds

Abstract

Using either alkane elimination or salt metathesis methods, tantalum complexes have been prepared with new ligand systems with tridentate bis(phenolate)donor (donor = pyridine, furan, and thiophene) or bidentate bis(phenolate)benzene arrangements. The ligand framework has two X-type phenolates connected to the flat heterocyclic L-type donor at the 2,6- or 2,5- positions or to the 2,6- positions of benzene via direct ring−ring (sp_2−sp_2) linkages. Solid-state structures of these complexes show that in all cases the ligands bind in a mer fashion, but with different geometries of the LX_2 frameworks. The pyridine-linked system binds in a Cs-fashion, the furan-linked system in a C2_v-fashion, and the thiophene-linked system in a C_1-fashion. A bis(phenolate)pyridine tantalum tribenzyl species (7), upon heating in the presence of dimethylphenylphosphine, generates a stable benzylidene complex by α-hydrogen abstraction with loss of toluene and PMe_2Ph trapping. This process was found to be independent of PMe_2Ph concentration with ΔH = 31.3 ± 0.6 kcal·mol−1 and ΔS = 3 ± 2 cal·mol−1·K−1, and the kinetic isotope effect kH/kD = 4.9 ± 0.4, consistent with a mechanism involving rate determining α-hydrogen abstraction with loss of toluene, followed by fast phosphine coordination to the resulting benzylidene species. An X-ray structure determination reveals that the benzylidene π-bond is oriented perpendicular to the oxygen−oxygen vector, in accord with the prediction of DFT calculations. Tantalum alkyl complexes with the benzene-linked bis(phenolate) ligand (Ta(CH_3)2[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)2C_6H_3] (16), Ta(CH_2Ph)2[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)2C_6H_3] (17), and TaCl_2CH_3[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)2C_6H_4] (18)) are obtained with (to afford pincer complexes) or without cyclometalation at the ipso-position. Deuterium labeling of the phenol hydrogens and of the linking 1,3-benzene-diyl ring reveals an unexpected mechanism for the metalation of bis(phenol)benzene with TaC_l2(CH_3)3 to generate 18. This process involves protonolysis of a methyl group, followed by C-H/Ta-CH_3 σ bond metathesis leading to cyclometalation of the linking ring, and finally protonation of the cyclometallated group by the pendant phenol. TaCl_2CH_3[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)2C_6H_4] was found to undergo σ bond metathesis at temperatures over 90 °C to give the pincer complex TaCl_2[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)2C_6H_3] (1_9) and methane (ΔH = 27.1 ± 0.9 kcal·mol−1; ΔS≠ = −2 ± 2 cal·mol^1·K^1; k_H/k_D = 1.6 ± 0.2 at 125 °C). Ta(CH_3)_2[(OC_6H_2-tBu_2)_2C_6H_3] (16) was found to react with tBuNC to insert into the Ta-CH_3 bonds and generate an imino-acyl species (23). Reaction of 16 with Ph_2CO or PhCN leads to insertion into the Ta-Ph bond to give 21 and 22. Complexes 6, 7, 10, 11-P, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19-OEt_2, 21, 22, and 23 have been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and all show a mer binding mode of the diphenolate ligands, but the ligand geometry varies leading to C_2v-, pseudo-C_s-, pseudo-C_2-, and C_1-symmetric structures.

Additional Information

© 2008 American Chemical Society. Publication Date (Web): November 6, 2008. We thank Lawrence M. Henling (Caltech) for assistance with single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies. This work has been supported by USDOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Grant No. DE-FG03-85ER13431).

Attached Files

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_001.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_002.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_003.cif

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_004.pdf

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Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_007.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_008.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_009.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_011.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_012.pdf

Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_013.pdf

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Supplemental Material - om8002653_si_015.pdf

Updated - om8002653_si_010.pdf

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Created:
August 22, 2023
Modified:
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