Coordinated Hubble Space Telescope and Venus Express Observations of Venus' upper cloud deck
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Received 23 December 2014; Revised 21 May 2015; Accepted 27 May 2015; Available online 16 June 2015. The authors are grateful to the editor and two anonymous reviewers for providing thoughtful and constructive critique of the original manuscript. The authors are also grateful to Marty Snow of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at University of Colorado, Boulder for providing SOLSTICE data at high spectral (0.33 Å) sampling. The authors are grateful to Brad Sandor for coordinating and acquiring the JCMT data, and hours of useful conversation and discourse. Investigator Sandor was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant no. AST-1312985, and by NASA under Grant nos. NNX10AB33G, NNX12AI32G, and NNX14AK05G toward completion of this research. The authors also acknowledge the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope which has historically been operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the National Research Council of Canada and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The authors also thank the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) for their fruitful support of the documentation of these observations. Most of the authors of this manuscript were members of the ISSI International Team ''Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus atmosphere'' who met during the years 2013–2015 in the facilities of ISSI in Bern, Switzerland. Finally the authors are most grateful to Adriana Ocampo, NASA Headquarters, John Grunsfield, NASA Headquarters, Alan Stern, SwRI, Claus Leither, Space Telescope Science Institute, Hvakam Svedhem, Venus Express Project Scientist, and the VEx Science Working Team, for their support in the acquisition and analysis of the HST observations obtained through NASA/HST program 12433. This research was funded through the NASA Early Careers Program, NASA Grant NNX11AN81G; the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, Grant NNX12AG55G and through a grant from Space Science Telescope Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NAS5-26555.