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Published December 29, 2004 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

BioMEMS to bionanotechnology: state of the art in integrated biochips and future prospects


Biomedical or Biological Micro-Electro-Mechanical- Systems (BioMEMS) have in recent years become increasingly prevalent and have found widespread use in a wide variety of applications such as diagnostics, therapeutics and tissue engineering. This paper reviews the interdisciplinary work performed in our group in recent years to develop micro-integrated devices to characterize biological entities. We present the use of electrical and mechanically based phenomena to perform characterization and various functions needed for integrated biochips. One sub-system takes advantage of the dielectrophoretic effect to sort and concentrate bacterial cells and viruses within a micro-fluidic biochip. Another sub-system measures impedance changes produced by the metabolic activity of bacterial cells to determine their viability. A third sub-system is used to detect the mass of viruses as they bind to micro-mechanical sensors. The last sub-system described has been used to detect the charge on DNA molecules as it translocates through nanopore channels. These devices with an electronic or mechanical signal output can be very useful in producing practical systems for rapid detection and characterization of cells for a wide variety of applications in the food safety and health diagnostics industries. The paper will also briefly discuss future prospects of BioMEMS and its possible impact and on bionanotechnology.

Additional Information

© 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). We would also like to acknowledge the support of the Birck Nanotechnology Center and the staff of the Purdue University Microfabrication facilities for wafer processing. We would also like to acknowledge the support of the NSF Career Award for Rashid Bashir. Haibo Li were supported by the Center for Food Safety Engineering at Purdue University through a USDA cooperative agreement: CRIS 1935-42000-035-00D, agreement # 58-1935-9-010. Hung Chang was supported through NASA Institute of Nanoelectronics and Computing (INAC) at Purdue University under award no. NCC 2-1363. Dr. Demir Akin and Amit Gupta were supported by NIH (NIBIB) grant R21/R33 EB000778-1. The authors would also like to thank Prof. M. Ladisch, Prof. Arun Bhunia, Prof. Steve Broyles of Purdue University, and Dr. Farhad Kosari and Prof. George Vasmatzis of Mayo Clinic, for their collaboration and many valuable discussions.

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