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Published July 10, 2005 | public
Journal Article Open

Uncovering the physics of flapping flat plates with artificial evolution


We consider an experiment in which a rectangular flat plate is flapped with two degrees of freedom, and a genetic algorithm tunes its trajectory parameters so as to achieve maximum average lift force, thus evolving a population of trajectories all yielding optimal lift forces. We cluster the converged population by defining a dynamical formation number for a flapping flat plate, thus showing that optimal unsteady force generation is linked to the formation of a leading-edge vortex with maximum circulation. Force and digital particle image velocimetry measurements confirm this result.

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Reprinted with permission of Cambridge University Press. (Received March 29 2005); (Revised April 13 2005); Published online by Cambridge University Press 21 June 2005


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023