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Published February 10, 2015 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Hops 383: an Outbursting Class 0 Protostar in Orion


We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 μm with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 μm. The outburst is also detected in the submillimeter by comparing APEX/SABOCA to SCUBA data, and a scattered-light nebula appeared in NEWFIRM K_s imaging. The post-outburst spectral energy distribution indicates a Class 0 source with a dense envelope and a luminosity between 6 and 14L_☉. Post-outburst time-series mid- and far-infrared photometry show no long-term fading and variability at the 18% level between 2009 and 2012. HOPS 383 is the first outbursting Class 0 object discovered, pointing to the importance of episodic accretion at early stages in the star formation process. Its dramatic rise and lack of fading over a 6 year period hint that it may be similar to FU Ori outbursts, although the luminosity appears to be significantly smaller than the canonical luminosities of such objects.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 October 31; accepted 2014 December 30; published 2015 February 4. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through awards issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL/Caltech). We include data from Herschel, a European Space Agency space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led consortia and with important participation from NASA. We use data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center Infrared Science Archive, which are operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA. We also include data from APEX, a collaboration between the Max-Planck- Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory. This paper makes use of data products from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA. This paper uses observations taken at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The work of W. F. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. The work of A.S. was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft priority program 1573 ("Physics of the Interstellar Medium"). Facilities: APEX, Herschel, JCMT, KPNO:2.1m, Mayall, Spitzer, WISE

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Submitted - 1501.00492v2.pdf

Published - 2041-8205_800_1_L5.pdf


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023