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Published October 2017 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

The Four Faces of Political Participation in Argentina: Using Latent Class Analysis to Study Political Behavior


In this paper we use latent class analysis to identify the four faces of political participation. Previous research has generally focused on conventional forms of political participation (for example, voting), with some research looking as well at unconventional forms of political participation, like protesting. Moreover, most research studies these forms of participation separately. However, citizens actually engage in both conventional and unconventional participation simultaneously, and here we present a methodology that can identify citizens who engage in both, neither, or only one form of participation. Using our approach, we examine a series of hypotheses about how social, political, and economic grievances lead citizens to engage in each face of political participation. We apply this methodology to recent survey data from Argentina, which we argue is an excellent case for studying both forms of participation simultaneously. This application demonstrates the utility of the latent class approach for studying the four faces of political participation.

Additional Information

© 2017 Southern Political Science Association. Published online August 30, 2017. We thank Andy Sinclair and Gabriel Katz for their work on related projects. We thank the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and its major supporters (the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, and Vanderbilt University) for making the LAPOP data that we use in this paper available and easily accessible.

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Supplemental Material - 160210Appendix.pdf

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August 19, 2023
August 19, 2023