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Published April 1, 2005 | Published
Journal Article Open

Nanomechanical characterization of cavity growth and rupture in hydrogen-implanted single-crystal BaTiO3


A thermodynamic model of cavity nucleation and growth in ion-implanted single-crystal BaTiO3 layer is proposed, and cavity formation is related to the measured mechanical properties to better understand hydrogen implantation-induced layer transfer processes for ferroelectric thin films. The critical radius for cavity nucleation was determined experimentally from blistering experiments performed under isochronal anneal conditions and was calculated using continuum mechanical models for deformation and fracture, together with thermodynamic models. Based on thermodynamic modeling, we suggest that cavities grow toward the cracking criteria at a critical blister size whereupon gas is emitted from ruptured cavities. The main driving force for layer splitting is the reduction of the overall elastic energy stored in the implanted region during the cavity nucleation and growth as the gaseous H2 entrapped within the cavities is released. Nanoindentation measurements reveal locally the mechanical property changes within the vicinity of a single cavity. Using the measured mechanical properties at the single-cavity level, we developed three-dimensional strain and stress profiles using finite element method.

Additional Information

© 2005 American Institute of Physics (Received: 28 September 2004; accepted: 15 February 2005; published online: 25 March 2005) This work has been supported by the Army Research Office (ARO-MURI) under Grant No. DAAD 19-01-1-0517, Arrowhead Research Corporation, and the National Science Foundation (Grant No. EPS-0296165), the University of South Carolina NanoCenter Seed Grant, and the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium-NASA. One of the authors (Y.-B. Park) wishes to acknowledge the support of the post-doctoral fellowship program from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF).

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