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Published February 1933 | Published
Journal Article Open

The free energies of formation of aqueous d-alanine, l-aspartic acid, and d-glutamic acid


The employment of thermodynamics in biochemistry has been restricted, until recently, to the use of first law data. In the last few years a beginning has been made in the application of the second law; i.e., of free energy data (1, 2). The development of this field is limited by the paucity of available free energy data. We have therefore undertaken the systematic determination of the free energies of formation of compounds which may be interesting in biochemistry or physiology.

Additional Information

© 1933 American Society of Biological Chemists. Received for publication, October 22, 1932. The authors wish to thank Messrs. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., of Nutley, New Jersey, and particularly Dr. F. Gudernatsch for their kindness in placing at our disposal the d-alanine used in this investigation.

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