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Published February 2019 | Published
Journal Article Open

Photoacoustic computed tomography of human extremities


We present a method of imaging angiographic structures in human extremities, including hands, arms, legs, and feet, using a newly developed photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system. The system features deep penetration (1.8 cm in muscular tissues) with high spatial and temporal resolutions. A volumetric image is acquired within 5 to 15 s while each cross sectional image is acquired within 100  μs. Therefore, we see no blurring from motion in the imaging plane. Longitudinal and latitudinal cross-sectional images of a healthy volunteer clearly show the vascular network of each appendage and highlight the system's ability to image major and minor vasculatures, without the use of an external contrast or ionizing radiation. We also track heartbeat-induced arterial movement at a two-dimensional frame rate of 10 Hz. This work substantiates the idea that PACT could be used as a noninvasive method for imaging human vasculatures.

Additional Information

© 2019 The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. Paper 180458SSR received Jul. 24, 2018; accepted for publication Jan. 29, 2019; published online Feb. 19, 2019. The authors would like to thank Dr. Junhui Shi and Dr. Konstantin Maslov for their contributions to the system design. This work was sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), and R01 NS102213. Disclosures: Lihong Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., CalPACT, LLC, and Union Photoacoustic Technologies, Ltd., which, however, did not support this work. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

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