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Published August 25, 2017 | public
Journal Article

Origin of mechanical stress and rising internal energy during fast uniaxial extension of SBR melts


We carry out simultaneous mechanical and IR-thermal-imaging based temperature measurements of SBR melts during uniaxial extension in order to delineate the nature of the observed mechanical responses. Using the first law of thermodynamics, we evaluate the enthalpy change h_1 associated with the temperature rise in the extending melt, estimate the heat loss to the surrounding, and conclude that there is an appreciable non-thermal enthalpic buildup h_2 = (w – h_1 − q) during either adiabatic or isothermal extension. The monotonic increase of h_2 with the stretching ratio λ until the onset of inhomogeneous extension or melt rupture reveals that fast melt extension is largely elastic even after yielding in presence of partial chain disentanglement. At high rates, the lock-up of chain entanglement produces such a high level of h_2 that is rarely seen in extension of crosslinked rubbers. When melt extension is carried out under isothermal condition, we show that the time-temperature superposition principle (TTS) fails to predict the transient response of a SBR melt at a fixed effective rate involving three temperatures. The failure of the TTS suggests that the terminal chain dynamics show different temperature dependence from the local segmental dynamics that control the transient stress responses.

Additional Information

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Received 2 May 2017, Revised 5 July 2017, Accepted 16 July 2017, Available online 17 July 2017.

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August 21, 2023
October 17, 2023