Translational Photoacoustic Microscopy
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), combining the advantages of optical excitation and of acoustic detection, has been widely used for both structural and functional imaging with scalable resolution and penetration in biological tissues. In this chapter, we provide a detailed discussion on PAM in translational studies. We first summarize the principles and major implementations of this technology. Then we introduce the state of the art in translational PAM, including studies on burns, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, eye disease, diabetic microvascular complications, pain, melanoma, gastrointestinal tract disease, and the brain. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and future directions of translational PAM.