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Published July 22, 2015 | Submitted
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The Theory of Rectified Diffusion of Mass into Gas Bubbles


The problem considered is the behavior of a gas bubble in a liquid saturated with dissolved gas when oscillating pressures are imposed on the system. This situation is encountered in experiments on cavitation and in the propagation of sonic and ultrasonic waves in liquids. Since gas diffuses into the bubble during the expansion half-cycle in which the pressure drops below its mean value, and diffuses out of the bubble during the compression half-cycle in which the pressure rises above its mean value, there is no net transfer of mass into or out of the bubble in first order. There is, however, in second order a net inflow of gas into the bubble which is called rectified diffusion. The equations which determine the system include the equation of state of the gas in the bubble, the equation of motion for the bubble boundary in the liquid, and the equation for the diffusion of dissolved gas in the liquid. In the solution presented here, the acoustic approximation is made; that is, the amplitude of the pressure oscillation is taken to be small. It is also assumed that the gas in the bubble remains isothermal throughout the oscillations; this assumption is valid provided the oscillation frequency is not too high. Under these conditions one finds for the mean rate of gas flow into the bubble the expression (dm/dt) = (8π/3)D C_∞ R_0 (ΔP/P_0)^2 where D is the diffusivity of the dissolved gas in the liquid, C_∞ is the equilibrium dissolved gas concentration for the mean ambient pressure P_0, R_0 is the mean radius of the bubble, and ΔP is the amplitude of the acoustic pressure oscillations. It may be remarked that the most important contribution to the rectification effect comes from the convection contribution to the diffusion process.

Additional Information

Office of Naval Research Department of the Navy Contract Nonr-220(28). Report No. 85-15.

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Submitted - 85-15.pdf


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