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Published June 25, 2015 | Published
Journal Article Open

Fabrication of Patterned Integrated Electrochemical Sensors


Fabrication of integrated electrochemical sensors is an important step towards realizing fully integrated and truly wireless platforms for many local, real-time sensing applications. Micro/nanoscale patterning of small area electrochemical sensor surfaces enhances the sensor performance to overcome the limitations resulting from their small surface area and thus is the key to the successful miniaturization of integrated platforms. We have demonstrated the microfabrication of electrochemical sensors utilizing top-down lithography and etching techniques on silicon and CMOS substrates. This choice of fabrication avoids the need of bottom-up techniques that are not compatible with established methods for fabricating electronics (e.g., CMOS) which form the industrial basis of most integrated microsystems. We present the results of applying microfabricated sensors to various measurement problems, with special attention to their use for continuous DNA and glucose sensing. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using micro- and nanofabrication techniques for the miniaturization and optimization of modern sensing platforms that employ well-established electronic measurement techniques.

Additional Information

© 2015 Muhammad Mujeeb-U-Rahman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 18 March 2015; Revised 15 June 2015; Accepted 25 June 2015. The fabrication procedures in this work were performed at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at the California Institute of Technology. This work was supported by Sanofi A. G. under Grant no. D09/4502653189. The authors would like to thank Mr. Mehmet Sencan for his help with functionalization and testing. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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August 20, 2023
August 20, 2023