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Published September 30, 1983 | public
Journal Article

Eruption Prediction Aided by Electronic Tiltmeter Data at Mount St. Helens


Telemetry from electronic tiltmeters in the crater at Mount St. Helens contributed to accurate predictions of all six effusive eruptions from June 1981 to August 1982. Tilting of the crater floor began several weeks before each eruption, accelerated sharply for several days, and then abruptly changed direction a few minutes to days before extrusion began. Each episode of uplift was caused by the intrusion of magma into the lava dome from a shallow source, causing the dome to inflate and eventually rupture. Release of magma pressure and increased surface loading by magma added to the dome combined to cause subsidence just prior to extrusion.

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© 1983 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received 26 January 1983; revised 27 June 1983.

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August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023