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Published January 2014 | public
Journal Article

Multiplicative and Additive Low-Frequency Noise in Microwave Transistors


The additive noise (i.e., noise figure) in the 1-Hz-1-GHz range and multiplicative noise (i.e., gain fluctuations) in the 1-Hz-100-kHz range have been measured for six different types of high electron mobility transistors and two heterojunction bipolar transistors. The instrumentation enables measurement of multiplicative noise as small as 10^(-6) (1 ppm). Measurements were performed at 300 and 22 K and results are discussed with regard to transistor technology, coupling of additive and multiplicative effects, and bias circuit dependence. The results are applied to radiometers and the degradation in performance due to the gain fluctuation is presented.

Additional Information

© 2013 IEEE. Manuscript received June 25, 2013; revised November 02, 2013; accepted November 14, 2013. Date of publication December 13, 2013; date of current version January 06, 2014.

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August 22, 2023
October 25, 2023