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Published July 7, 2004 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Pyridinium-Derived N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Platinum: Synthesis, Structure and Ligand Substitution Kinetics


A series of [(R-iso-BIPY)Pt(CH_3)L]^+X^- complexes [R-iso-BIPY = N-(2-pyridyl)-R-pyridine-2-ylidene; (R = 4-H, 1; 4-tert-butyl, 2; 4-dimethylamino, 3; 5-dimethylamino, 4); L = SMe_2, b; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), c; carbon monoxide (CO), d; X = OTf- = trifluoromethanesulfonate and/or [BPh_4]-] were synthesized by cyclometalation of the [R-iso-BIPY−H]^+[OTF]- salts 1a−4a ([R-iso-BIPY−H]^+ = N-(2-pyridyl)-R-pyridinium) with dimethylplatinum-μ-dimethyl sulfide dimer. X-ray crystal structures for 1b, 2c−4c as well as complexes having bipyridyl and cyclometalated phenylpyridine ligands, [(bipy)Pt(CH_3)(DMSO)]^+ (5c) and (C_(11)H_8N)Pt(CH_3)(DMSO) (6c), have been determined. The pyridinium-derived N-heterocyclic carbene complexes display localized C−C and C−N bonds within the pyridinium ligand that are indicative of carbene π-acidity. The significantly shortened platinum−carbon distance, for "parent" complex 1b, together with NMR parameters and the ν(CO) values for carbonyl cations 1d−4d support a degree of Pt−C10 multiple bonding, increasing in the order 3 < 4 < 2 < 1. Degenerate DMSO exchange kinetics have been determined to establish the nature and magnitude of the trans-labilizing ability of these new N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. Exceptionally large second-order rate constants (k_2 = 6.5 ± 0.4 M^(-1)·s^(-1) (3c) to 2300 ± 500 M^(-1)·s^(-1) (1c)) were measured at 25 °C using ^1H NMR magnetization transfer kinetics and variable temperature line shape analysis. These rate constants are as much as 4 orders of magnitude greater than those of a series of structurally similar cationic bis(nitrogen)-donor complexes [(N−N)Pt(CH_3)(DMSO)]^+ reported earlier, and a factor of 32 to 1800 faster than an analogous charge neutral complex derived from cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine, (C_(11)H_8N)Pt(CH_3)(DMSO) (k_2 = 0.21 ± 0.02 M^(-1)·s^(-1) (6c)). The differences in rate constant are discussed in terms of ground state versus transition state energies. Comparison of the platinum−sulfur distances with second order rate constants suggests that differences in the transition-state energy are largely responsible for the range of rate constants measured. The π-accepting ability and trans-influence of the carbene donor are proposed as the origin of the large acceleration in associative ligand substitution rate.

Additional Information

© 2004 American Chemical Society. Received 5 March 2004. Published online 12 June 2004. Published in print 1 July 2004. The authors would like to thank Lawrence M. Henling and Michael W. Day for assistance with X-ray crystallography and Ola F. Wendt for useful discussions. We gratefully acknowledge support from the MC2 program in collaboration with bp.

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