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Published March 2022 | public
Journal Article Open

Real-time interface-tracking framework for the evolution of the phases during the quenching of the steel balls


The locus of the micro-structural phase boundaries and their respective volumetric fraction during the quench of the high-temperature austenite critically determines the resulted physical and mechanical properties. We have developed a new numerically dynamic framework and we have established analytical relationships, which combined with the experimental measurements, could predict the real-time formation of the equivalent phase borders and their marginal evolution within the steel ball throughout the quenching process. In this regard, the transient behavior of the temperature is computed upon quenching where the threshold of phase transformation, obtained from our experimental data, is tracked as the locus of the earliest formation of phase boundaries. Our parametric analysis predicts the role of the scale (i.e. radius) of the steel ball and the initial and quench (i.e. final) temperatures and additionally anticipates the onsets of parameters, where one and two of the phases cease to exist. The model could get utilized for the design of the quench parameters to obtain the desired mechanical properties from the original austenite state.

Additional Information

© 2022 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier. Received 6 October 2021, Accepted 14 January 2022, Available online 16 January 2022. The authors would like to thank the generous support from American University of Beirut, Award No. 103950 and the Masri Institute Award No. 103919 for the student Jihad Jundi. The helpful discussions with Dr. Saeed Keshavarz from University of Tabriz is additionally acknowledged. Data Availability. The row data for producing the results in this manuscript are freely available upon request from the corresponding author at aryanfar@caltech.edu. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S258915292200014X-mmc1.zip

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S258915292200014X-mmc2.zip

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S258915292200014X-mmc3.zip


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Additional details

August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023