Intratracheal injection of LPS and cytokines. V. LPS induces expression of LIF and LIF inhibits acute inflammation
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected into the trachea of rats was found to induce the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with a maximum expression of LIF after 2-12 h. The acute pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation caused by the intratracheal injection of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) could be inhibited by the intratracheal coinjection of recombinant LIF. Compared with intratracheal injection of LPS alone, intratracheal coinjection of LIF and LPS decreases the number of BAL neutrophils obtained 6 h later by approximately 50% (P < 0.0001). LIF decreased the amount of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not the amount of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, in the BAL fluid of LPS-injected rats. Similarly, intravenous LIF was found to decrease TNF expression, but increase IL-6 expression, in the serum of rats receiving intravenous LPS. Intravenous LIF, even in the absence of LPS, was found to cause IL-6 expression. In conclusion, intratracheal LPS initiates the secretion of endogenous LIF into the alveolar space where LIF may contribute to the downregulation of LPS-initiated acute neutrophilic inflammation by downregulating expression of TNF. LIF may down-regulate LPS-initiated TNF expression at least in part indirectly by upregulating expression of IL-6, a cytokine known to downregulate LPS-initiated TNF expression.
© 1994 American Physiological Society. Received 11 January 1994; accepted in final form 1 June 1994.