D₂ Dopamine Receptors Colocalize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP Domain, and RGS9 Knock-Out Mice Develop Dyskinesias Associated with Dopamine Pathways
Regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2), a member of the RGS family of Gα GTPase accelerating proteins, is expressed specifically in the striatum, which participates in antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. We report that RGS9 knock-out mice develop abnormal involuntary movements when inhibition of dopaminergic transmission is followed by activation of D₂-like dopamine receptors (DRs). These abnormal movements resemble drug-induced dyskinesia more closely than other rodent models. Recordings from striatal neurons of these mice establish that activation of D₂-like DRs abnormally inhibits glutamate-elicited currents. We show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain (for Disheveled, EGL-10, Pleckstrin homology), colocalizes with D₂DRs when coexpressed in mammalian cells. Recordings from oocytes coexpressing D₂DR or the m2 muscarinic receptor and G-protein-gated inward rectifier potassium channels show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain, preferentially accelerates the termination of D₂DR signals. Thus, alterations in RGS9-2 may be a key factor in the pathway leading from D₂DRs to the side effects associated with the treatment both of psychoses and Parkinson's disease.
Additional Information© 2005 Society for Neuroscience. Received Jan. 15, 2004; revised Jan. 4, 2005; accepted Jan. 4, 2005. This work was supported by grants from the Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für klinische Forschung Leipzig (TP C19), National Institutes of Health (GM-29836, GM05982, MH001750, and MH-49176), and by a National Research Service Award to A.K. (MH019552).
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