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Published April 2011 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Porphysome nanovesicles generated by porphyrin bilayers for use as multimodal biophotonic contrast agents


Optically active nanomaterials promise to advance a range of biophotonic techniques through nanoscale optical effects and integration of multiple imaging and therapeutic modalities. Here, we report the development of porphysomes; nanovesicles formed from self-assembled porphyrin bilayers that generated large, tunable extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching and unique photothermal and photoacoustic properties. Porphysomes enabled the sensitive visualization of lymphatic systems using photoacoustic tomography. Near-infrared fluorescence generation could be restored on dissociation, creating opportunities for low-background fluorescence imaging. As a result of their organic nature, porphysomes were enzymatically biodegradable and induced minimal acute toxicity in mice with intravenous doses of 1,000 mg kg^(−1). In a similar manner to liposomes, the large aqueous core of porphysomes could be passively or actively loaded. Following systemic administration, porphysomes accumulated in tumours of xenograft-bearing mice and laser irradiation induced photothermal tumour ablation. The optical properties and biocompatibility of porphysomes demonstrate the multimodal potential of organic nanoparticles for biophotonic imaging and therapy.

Additional Information

© 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited.c Received 19 April 2010; Accepted 08 February 2011; Published online 20 March 2011. We thank B. G. Neel for editing, B. C. Wilson and C. M. Yip for insightful discussion, P. V. Turner for histopathology analysis, and E. Kumacheva and L. Tzadu for providing gold nanorods. This work was supported by grants from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Research, the Canadian Foundation of Innovation, the Joey and Toby Tanenbaum/Brazilian Ball Chair in Prostate Cancer Research, and in part from the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, the Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Planning. Author contributions: J.F.L. and G.Z. conceived the project, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. J.F.L., W.C.W.C. and G.Z. planned the experiments. C.S.J. and J.F.L. carried out photothermal tumour ablation. C.S.J. carried out confocal microscopy. E.H. and J.F.L. carried out most porphysome formation, photophysical characterization and drug encapsulation. H.J. and J.F.L. carried out toxicity experiments. J.L.R. carried out electron microscopy. C.K and L.V.W. carried out the photoacoustic experiments. W.C. and J.F.L. prepared the porphysome starting materials. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023