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Published March 22, 2023 | Supplemental Material + Submitted
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Single-shot 3D photoacoustic tomography using a single-element detector for ultrafast imaging of hemodynamics


Imaging hemodynamics is crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of vascular diseases. However, current imaging techniques are limited due to the use of ionizing radiation or contrast agents, short penetration depth, or complex and expensive data acquisition systems. Photoacoustic tomography shows promise as a solution to these issues. However, existing photoacoustic tomography methods collect signals either sequentially or through numerous detector elements, leading to either low imaging speed or high system complexity and cost. To address these issues, here we introduce a method to capture a 3D photoacoustic image of vasculature using a single laser pulse and a single-element detector that functions as 6,400 virtual ones. Our method enables ultrafast volumetric imaging of hemodynamics in the human body at up to 1 kHz and requires only a single calibration for different objects and for long-term operations. We demonstrate 3D imaging of hemodynamics at depth in humans and small animals, capturing the variability in blood flow speeds. This concept can inspire other imaging technologies and find applications such as home-care monitoring, biometrics, point-of-care testing, and wearable monitoring.

Additional Information

The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license. We thank Yanyu Zhao for contributing to the universal calibration. This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants R01 EB028277, U01 EB029823, and R35 CA220436 (Outstanding Investigator Award). The computations presented here were conducted in the Resnick High Performance Computing Center, a facility supported by Resnick Sustainability Institute at the California Institute of Technology. Author contributions. Y.Zhang and L.V.W. conceived and designed the study. Y.Zhang, L.L., R.C., and K.M. built the imaging system. Y.Zhang developed the data acquisition program. P.H. developed the 3D reconstruction algorithm. Y.Zhang, L.L., R.C., and A.K. performed the experiments. Y.Zhang, P.H., and X.T. processed and analyzed the data. Y.Zeng, L.J., and Q.Z. fabricated the ultrasonic transducer. L.V.W. supervised the study. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript. Data availability. The main data supporting the results in this study are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information. Other data are too large to be publicly shared, yet they are available for research purposes from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Code availability. The reconstruction code, the system control software, and the data collection software are proprietary and used in licensed technologies, yet they are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Competing Interest Statement. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics Inc., CalPACT LLC, and Union Photoacoustic Technologies Ltd., which, however, did not support this work. K.M. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. The other authors declare no competing interests.

Attached Files

Submitted - 2023.03.14.532661v1.full.pdf

Supplemental Material - media-1.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-10.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-11.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-12.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-2.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-3.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-4.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-5.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-6.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-7.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-8.mp4

Supplemental Material - media-9.mp4


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Additional details

August 20, 2023
October 25, 2023