Sliding along frictionally held incoherent interfaces in homogeneous systems subjected to dynamic shear loading: a photoelastic study
An experimental investigation was conducted to study dynamic sliding at high strain rates along incoherent (frictional) interfaces between two identical plates. The plates were held together by a uniform compressive stress, while dynamic sliding was initiated by an impact-induced shear loading. The case of freely-standing plates with no external pressure was also investigated. The dynamic stress fields that developed during the events were recorded in a microsecond time scale by high-speed photography in conjunction with classical dynamic photoelasticity. Depending on the choice of experimental parameters (impact speed and superimposed static pressure), pulse-like and crack-like sliding modes were observed. Visual evidence of sub-Rayleigh, intersonic and even supersonically propagating pulses were discovered and recorded. Unlike classical shear cracks in coherent interfaces of finite strength, sliding areas in frictional interfaces seem to grow at various discrete speeds without noticeable acceleration phases. A relatively broad loading wave caused by the interference between the impact wave and the preexisting static stress field was observed emanating from the interface. There was a cusp in the stress contours at the interface, indicating that the propagation speed was slightly faster along the interface than in the bulk. The observed propagation speeds of the sliding tips were dependent on the projectile speed. They spanned almost the whole interval from sub-Rayleigh speeds to nearly the sonic speed of the material, with the exception of a forbidden gap between the Rayleigh wave speed and the shear wave speed. Supersonic trailing pulses generating Mach lines of different inclination angles, emanating from the sliding zone tips, were discovered. In addition, behind the sliding tip, wrinkle-like opening pulses were observed for a wide range of impact speeds and confining stresses. They always traveled at speeds between the Rayleigh wave speed and the shear wave speed of the material.
© 2006 Springer. Received 1 July 2005; accepted in revised form 20 December 2005. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research through grant N00014-03-1-0435 (Dr. Y.D.S. Rajapakse, project monitor).