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Published May 1, 2015 | Draft + Published
Journal Article Open

Hot Gaseous Coronae around Spiral Galaxies: Probing the Illustris Simulation


The presence of hot gaseous coronae around present-day massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. However, our observational knowledge remains scarce, since to date only four gaseous coronae have been detected around spirals with massive stellar bodies (≳2 × 10^(11) M_⊙. To explore the hot coronae around lower mass spiral galaxies, we utilized Chandra X-ray observations of a sample of eight normal spiral galaxies with stellar masses of (0.7-2.0)×10^(11) M_⊙. Although statistically significant diffuse X-ray emission is not detected beyond the optical radii (~20 kpc) of the galaxies, we derive 3σ limits on the characteristics of the coronae. These limits, complemented with previous detections of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753, are used to probe the Illustris Simulation. The observed 3σ upper limits on the X-ray luminosities and gas masses exceed or are at the upper end of the model predictions. For NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 the observed gas temperatures, metal abundances, and electron density profiles broadly agree with those predicted by Illustris. These results hint that the physics modules of Illustris are broadly consistent with the observed properties of hot coronae around spiral galaxies. However, one shortcoming of Illustris is that massive black holes, mostly residing in giant ellipticals, give rise to powerful radio-mode active galactic nucleus feedback, which results in under-luminous coronae for ellipticals.

Additional Information

© 2015 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 December 19; accepted 2015 March 1; published 2015 May 4. We thank the anonymous referee for constructive comments. We thank Volker Springel, Debora Sijacki, and Dylan Nelson for helpful discussions. This research made use of software provided by the Chandra X-ray Center in the application packages CIAO. This work made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. We acknowledge the use of the HyperLeda database (http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr). Á.B. acknowledges support provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded by the CXC, which is operated by the SAO for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. W.F. and C.J. acknowledge support from the Smithsonian Institution. L. H. acknowledges support from NASA grant NNX12AC67G and NSF grant AST-1312095.

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Draft - 1503_01107.pdf

Published - Bogdan_2015_ApJ_804_72.pdf


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September 28, 2023
September 28, 2023