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Published July 20, 2015 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Neutrino-driven Turbulent Convection and Standing Accretion Shock Instability in Three-Dimensional Core-Collapse Supernovae


We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27-M⊙ progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), (3) SASI dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. 2013, ApJ 770, 66 and Couch & Connor 2014, ApJ 785, 123. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case, since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ)∝ℓ−1 in the "inertial range," while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ)∝ℓ−5/3. We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy containing scale, creating a "bottleneck" that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 September 24; accepted 2015 June 3; published 2015 July 17. We thank Sean Couch, Peter Goldreich, and Mike Norman for helpful discussions on turbulence and Thierry Foglizzo for help with interpreting the behavior of SASI in our simulations. We furthermore acknowledge helpful discussions with Adam Burrows, Joshua Dolence, Steve Drasco, Rodrigo Fernandez, Sarah Gossan, Thomas Janka, Bernhard Müller, Jeremiah Murphy, Evan O'Connor, Sherwood Richers, and other members of our Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) collaboration (http://www.black-holes.org). This research is partially supported by NSF grant nos. AST-1212170, PHY-1404569, PHY-1151197, PHY-1212460, and OCI-0905046,by NSERC grant RGPIN 418680-2012, by a grant from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory, by the Sloan Research Foundation, and by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation. CR and LR acknowledge support by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant numbers PF2-130099 and PF3-140114, respectively, awarded by the Chandra X-ray center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. The simulations were performed on the Caltech compute cluster "Zwicky"(NSF MRI award No. PHY-0960291), on supercomputers of the NSF XSEDE network under computer time allocation TG-PHY100033, on the NSF/NCSA Blue Waters system under NSF PRAC award ACI-1440083, on machines of the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative, and at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), which is supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. The multi-dimensional visualizations were generated with the open-source VisIt visualization package (https://wci.llnl.gov/codes/visit/). All other figures were generated with the Python-based matplotlib package (Hunter 2007, http://matplotlib.org/).

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Published - 0004-637X_808_1_70.pdf

Submitted - 1409.7078v1.pdf


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