Dynamically propagating shear bands in impact-loaded prenotched plates—I. Experimental investigations of temperature signatures and propagation speed
The initiation and propagation of shear bands are investigated by subjecting prenotched plates to asymmetric impact loading (dynamic mode-II). The materials studied are C-300 (a maraging steel) and Ti-6Al-4V. A shear band emanates from the notch tip and propagates rapidly in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of impact. When the impact velocity is higher than a critical value, the shear band propagates throughout the specimen. The shear band arrests inside the specimen when the impact velocity is below this critical value. In the latter case and for the C-300 steel, a crack initiates and propagates from the tip of the arrested shear band at an angle to the direction of shear band propagation. Microscopic examinations of the shear band and crack surfaces reveal a ductile mode of shear failure inside the shear band and an opening mode of failure for the crack. The coexistence of shear banding and fracture events in the same specimen signifies a transition in the modes of failure for this material under the conditions described. For Ti-6Al-4V, the only mode of failure observed is shear banding. While the transition is induced by changes in loading conditions, the different behaviors of these two materials suggest it is also related to material properties. The experimental investigation focuses on both the thermal and the mechanical aspects of the propagation of shear bands. Real time temperature histories along lines intersecting and perpendicular to and along the shear band path are recorded by means of a high speed infrared detector system. Experiments show that the peak temperatures inside the propagating shear bands increase with impact velocity. The highest temperature measured is in excess of 1400 °C or approximately 90% of the melting point of the C-300 steel. For Ti-6Al-4V, the peak temperatures are approximately 450 °C. In the mechanical part of the study, high speed photography is used to record the initiation and propagation of shear bands. Recorded images of propagating shear bands at different impact velocities provide histories of the speed of shear band propagation for the C-300 steel. A strong dependence of shear band speed on the impact velocity is found. The highest speed observed for the C-300 steel is approximately 1200 ms−1 or 40% of its shear wave speed.
© 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. Received 24 April 1995. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Army Research Office through grant No. DAAH 04-93-G0037 under Dr K. Iyer. We are also grateful to Dr Y. Rajapakse for support from the Office of Naval Research through grant No. N00014-90-J-1340.