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Published September 20, 1989 | Published
Journal Article Open

Mathematical modeling of acid deposition due to radiation fog


A Lagrangian model has been developed to study acidic deposition due to radiation fog. The model couples submodels describing the development and dissipation of radiation fog, the gas-phase chemistry and transfer, and the aqueous-phase chemistry. The model is applied to a radiation fog episode in Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley of California over the period January 4–5, 1985. Model predictions for temperature profile, fog development, liquid water content, gas-phase concentrations of SO_2, HNO_3, and NH_3, pH, aqueous-phase concentrations of SO_4^(2−), NH_4^+, and NO_3^−, and finally deposition rates of the above ions are compared with the observed values. The deposition rates of the major ions are predicted to increase significantly during the fog episode, the most notable being the increase of sulfate deposition. Pathways for sulfate production that are of secondary importance in a cloud environment may become significant in a fog. Expressing the mean droplet settling velocity as a function of liquid water content is found to be quite influential in the model's predictions.

Additional Information

Copyright 1989 by the American Geophysical Union. (Received February 2, 1989; revised June 12, 1989; accepted June 12, 1989.) Paper number 89JD01227. We would like to thank W. G. Zdunkowski and A. Bott, Institut fur Meteorologie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitat, Mainz, for providing us with the code for the radiation scheme and for helpful comments. We would like also to thank W. P. L. Carter, University of California, Riverside, for providing us with his software for the gas-phase mechanism preparation and emissions processing. This work was supported by the State of California Air Resources Board under agreement A732-043.

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