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Published February 20, 2017 | Supplemental Material + Published + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Focusing light inside dynamic scattering media with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation


Wavefront shaping based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) focuses light through or inside scattering media, but the low speed of DOPC prevents it from being applied to thick, living biological tissue. Although a fast DOPC approach was recently developed, the reported single-shot wavefront measurement method does not work when the goal is to focus light inside, instead of through, highly scattering media. Here, using a ferroelectric liquid crystal based spatial light modulator, we develop a simpler but faster DOPC system that focuses light not only through, but also inside scattering media. By controlling 2.6×10^5 optical degrees of freedom, our system focused light through 3 mm thick moving chicken tissue, with a system latency of 3.0 ms. Using ultrasound-guided DOPC, along with a binary wavefront measurement method, our system focused light inside a scattering medium comprising moving tissue with a latency of 6.0 ms, which is one to two orders of magnitude shorter than those of previous digital wavefront shaping systems. Since the demonstrated speed approaches tissue decorrelation rates, this work is an important step toward in vivo deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.

Additional Information

© 2017 Optical Society of America. Received 11 November 2016; revised 22 January 2017; accepted 23 January 2017 (Doc. ID 280656); published 20 February 2017. Funding: National Institutes of Health (NIH) (DP1 EB016986, R01 CA186567). We thank Konstantin Maslov for fabricating the acoustic lens, Ashton Hemphill for helpful discussion, and Prof. James Ballard for proofreading the manuscript.

Attached Files

Published - optica-4-2-280.pdf

Accepted Version - nihms883451.pdf

Supplemental Material - optica42280s001.PDF


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