Friends of Hot Jupiters. II. No Correspondence between Hot-jupiter Spin-Orbit Misalignment and the Incidence of Directly Imaged Stellar Companions
Multi-star systems are common, yet little is known about a stellar companion's influence on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. For instance, stellar companions may have facilitated the inward migration of hot Jupiters toward to their present day positions. Many observed short-period gas giant planets also have orbits that are misaligned with respect to their star's spin axis, which has also been attributed to the presence of a massive outer companion on a non-coplanar orbit. We present the results of a multi-band direct imaging survey using Keck NIRC2 to measure the fraction of short-period gas giant planets found in multi-star systems. Over three years, we completed a survey of 50 targets ("Friends of Hot Jupiters") with 27 targets showing some signature of multi-body interaction (misaligned or eccentric orbits) and 23 targets in a control sample (well-aligned and circular orbits). We report the masses, projected separations, and confirmed common proper motion for the 19 stellar companions found around 17 stars. Correcting for survey incompleteness, we report companion fractions of 48% ± 9%, 47% ± 12%, and 51% ± 13% in our total, misaligned/eccentric, and control samples, respectively. This total stellar companion fraction is 2.8σ larger than the fraction of field stars with companions approximately 50-2000 AU. We observe no correlation between misaligned/eccentric hot Jupiter systems and the incidence of stellar companions. Combining this result with our previous radial velocity survey, we determine that 72% ± 16% of hot Jupiters are part of multi-planet and/or multi-star systems.
© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 November 3; accepted 2014 December 22; published 2015 February 20. This work was supported by NASA grant NNX14AD24G. H.N. is grateful for funding support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. J.A.J. gratefully acknowledges support from generous fellowships from the David & Lucile Packard and Alfred P. Sloan foundations. We also thank Brendan Bowler for assistance with our common proper motion analysis and Rebekah Dawson and Cristobal Petrovich for helpful discussions. This work was based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory granted by the California Institute of Technology. We thank the observers who contributed to the measurements reported here and acknowledge the efforts of the Keck Observatory staff. We extend special thanks to those of Hawaiian ancestry on whose sacred mountain of Mauna Kea we are privileged to be guests.
Published - 0004-637X_800_2_138.pdf
Submitted - 1501.00013v2.pdf