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Published January 13, 2023 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Non-Invasive 3D Photoacoustic Tomography of Angiographic Anatomy and Hemodynamics of Fatty Livers in Rats


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disorder worldwide, which strongly correlates to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes. Complementary to mainstream liver diagnostic modalities, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) can provide high-speed images with functional optical contrast. However, PAT has not been demonstrated to study fatty liver anatomy with clear volumetric vasculatures. The livers of multiple rats are non-invasively imaged in vivo using the recently developed 3D PAT platform. The system provides isotropically high spatial resolution in 3D space, presenting clear angiographic structures of rat livers without injecting contrast agents. Furthermore, to quantitatively analyze the difference between the livers of lean and obese rats, the authors measured several PAT features and statistical differences between the two groups are observed. In addition to the anatomy, a time-gated strategy is applied to correct respiration-induced motion artifacts and extracted the hemodynamics of major blood vessels during the breathing cycles. This study demonstrates the capabilities of 3D-PAT to reveal both angiographic anatomy and function in rat livers, providing hematogenous information for fatty liver diagnosis. 3D-PAT, as a new tool for preclinical research, warrants further improvements to be transferred to human pediatric liver imaging.

Additional Information

© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. X.T. and L.L. contributed equally to this work. This work was sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant R35 CA220436 (Outstanding Investigator Award). Imaging Protocols. All the animal experiments followed protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of California Institute of Technology (IA20-1737). Data Availability Statement. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Attached Files

Published - ADVS-10-2205759.pdf

Supplemental Material - advs4747-sup-0001-suppmat.pdf

Supplemental Material - advs4747-sup-0002-movies1.mp4


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August 22, 2023
October 24, 2023