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Published January 1, 2022 | Supplemental Material
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Enhanced stratospheric intrusion at Lulin Mountain, Taiwan inferred from beryllium-7 activity


Beryllium-7 (⁷Be), produced by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atoms and molecules primarily in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, provides a useful tracer of cross-tropopause transport and vertical mixing in the troposphere. In the western Pacific subtropical region, the interaction of the subtropical jet stream with monsoon systems potentially enhances the transport. Here, we report one year of ⁷Be measurements at daily resolution during 2010, at Mt. Lulin (2862 m above mean sea level; NOAA code: LLN), along with other gaseous compounds such as O₃ and CO and meteorological information, to assess processes that affect the variability of ⁷Be. The ⁷Be concentrations are of the order 1 mBq/m³ or less. The ⁷Be activity is generally low during summer, largely due to precipitation and unfavorable conditions of atmospheric dynamics (i.e., prevalence of upward motion), but it is occasionally high because of the influence of typhoons. In winter and spring, stratospheric effects observed at the surface were frequent and significant, thereby directly affecting the strength of stratospheric effects on the troposphere, such as the tropospheric oxidation capacity. The effects of the stratospheric intrusions are seen by negative and positive correlations of ⁷Be with relative humidity and concentration of O₃, respectively. The stratospheric effect is further supported by the presence of downwelling transport in this region in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Atmospheric Composition Reanalysis Version 4 CO, O₃, and relative humidity data.

Additional Information

© 2021 Elsevier. Received 27 July 2021, Revised 21 October 2021, Accepted 26 October 2021, Available online 1 November 2021, Version of Record 4 November 2021. This work was supported in part by MOST grants 101-2628-M-001-001-MY4, 105-2111-M-001-006-MY3, and 108-2111-M-001-011-MY3 to Academia Sinica. The CAMS data used in this paper were downloaded from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) Atmosphere Data Store (ADS) (https://ads.atmosphere.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/cams-global-reanalysis-eac4). The air quality and meteorological parameters were provided by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The meteorological map and typhoon information were obtained from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau and Taiwan National Science and Technology Centre for Disaster Reduction. The authors would like to thank the service from Ministry of Science and Technology & Chinese Culture University, Data Bank for Atmospheric and Hydrologic Research. CRediT authorship contribution statement. Shengyi Huang: Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – original draft, Visualization. Pin-Ru Huang: Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – original draft, Visualization. Sally Newman: Investigation, Writing – review & editing. King-Fai Li: Formal analysis, Validation, Investigation, Writing – review & editing. Yu-Chi Lin: Resources, Visualization. Chih-An Huh: Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation. Neng-Huei Lin: Resources, Writing – review & editing. Shih-Chieh Hsu: Methodology, Investigation. Mao-Chang Liang: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Validation, Investigation, Writing – review & editing, Supervision, Funding acquisition. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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August 22, 2023
October 24, 2023