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Published April 15, 2015 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Three-Dimensional Photoacoustic Endoscopic Imaging of the Rabbit Esophagus


We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.

Additional Information

© 2015 Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Received: July 11, 2014; Accepted: January 14, 2015; Published: April 15, 2015. Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health through the following grants: R01 CA157277, EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), and R01 CA159959. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: LVW has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. The other authors have declared that no competing interests exist. We thank Prof. James Ballard for his attentive reading of the manuscript. We also thank Lisa Andrews-Kaminsky, Jenny Kalishman, and Suellen Greco for helping with the animal preparation, surgery, and image interpretation. Author Contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: JMY CF LVW. Performed the experiments: JMY CF JY. Analyzed the data: JMY CF JY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JMY CF JY RC QZ KKS. Wrote the paper: JMY CF LVW.

Attached Files

Published - pone.0120269.pdf

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s001.TIF

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s002.TIF

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s003.TIF

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s004.TIF

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s005.MOV

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s006.MOV

Supplemental Material - journal.pone.0120269.s007.MOV


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