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Published October 1, 2014 | Published
Journal Article Open

Amplitude-masked photoacoustic wavefront shaping and application in flowmetry


Optical-resolution photoacoustic flowmetry (PAF) allows noninvasive single-cell flow measurements. However, its operational depth is limited by optical diffusion, which prevents focusing beyond shallow depths in scattering media, as well as reducing the measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To overcome this limitation, we used binary-amplitude wavefront shaping to enhance light focusing in the presence of scattering. Here, the transmission modes that contributed constructively to the intensity at the optical focus were identified and selectively illuminated, resulting in a 14-fold intensity increase and a corresponding increase in SNR. This technique can potentially extend the operational depth of optical-resolution PAF beyond 1 mm in tissue.

Additional Information

© 2014 Optical Society of America. Received March 7, 2014; revised July 11, 2014; accepted August 6, 2014; posted August 20, 2014 (Doc. ID 207834); published September 17, 2014. We would like to thank Yong Zhou for experimental assistance and Prof. James Ballard for assistance in proofreading the manuscript. This work was sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (Director's Transformative Research Award), R01 CA157277, and R01 CA159959. L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which did not support this work.

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October 20, 2023