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Published October 2020 | Published + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Triaxially deformed freely precessing neutron stars: continuous electromagnetic and gravitational radiation


The shape of a neutron star (NS) is closely linked to its internal structure and the equation of state of supranuclear matters. A rapidly rotating, asymmetric NS in the Milky Way undergoes free precession, making it a potential source for multimessenger observation. The free precession could manifest in (i) the spectra of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the kilohertz (kHz) band for ground-based GW detectors, and (ii) the timing behaviour and pulse-profile characteristics if the NS is monitored as a pulsar with radio and/or X-ray telescopes. We extend previous work and investigate in great detail the free precession of a triaxially deformed NS with analytical and numerical approaches. In particular, its associated continuous GWs and pulse signals are derived. Explicit examples are illustrated for the continuous GWs, as well as timing residuals in both time and frequency domains. These results are ready to be used for future multimessenger observation of triaxially deformed freely precessing NSs, in order to extract scientific implication as much as possible.

Additional Information

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2020 August 13. Received 2020 July 31; in original form 2020 July 6. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments and suggestions. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11975027, 11991053, 11721303, and 11673002), the Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by the China Association for Science and Technology (2018QNRC001), the Max Planck Partner Group Program funded by the Max Planck Society, and the High-performance Computing Platform of Peking University. It was partially supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences through the Grant No. XDB23010200. L. Sun is a member of the LIGO Laboratory. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the United States National Science Foundation, and operates under cooperative agreement PHY–1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under award PHY–0823459. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data underlying this paper will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.

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Published - staa2476.pdf

Accepted Version - 2007.02528.pdf


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August 19, 2023
October 23, 2023