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Published January 15, 1999 | Published
Journal Article Open

Inferred charge states of high energy solar particles from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer on ACE


The large solar event on November 6, 1997, was enriched in heavy elements (Fe/O ∼ 1) with very hard energy spectra (power law index of −2). There was also a large enrichment in heavier isotopes, suggesting unusually strong charge to mass (Q/M) fractionation (∼(Q/M)^(−7)). Assuming that the fractionation is dominated by Q/M and first ionization potential (FIP) related processes, we have inferred the charge states of twelve elements with energies of 12–60 MeV/nucleon. These results suggest a source temperature of 3–6 × 10^6K, significantly higher than deduced at lower energies.

Additional Information

© 1999 by the American Geophysical Union. Received: September 2, 1998; Revised: October 29, 1998; Accepted: November 3, 1998. Paper number 1998GL900218. We thank the large group of dedicated individuals that contributed to the development of the SIS instrument (listed in Stone et al. 1998). This research was supported by NASA at the California Institute of Technology (under grant NAG5-6912), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goddard Space Flight Center.

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