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Published May 1, 1994 | public
Journal Article Open

Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines


The reverse saturable absorption and the optical-limiting response of metal phthalocyanines can be enhanced by use of the heavy-atom effect. Phthalocyanines containing heavy-metal atoms, such as In, Sn, and Pb, show a nearly factor-of-2 enhancement in the ratio of effective excited-state to ground-state absorption cross sections compared with those containing lighter atoms, such as Al and Si. In an f/8 optical geometry, homogeneous solutions of heavy-metal phthalocyanines, at 30% linear transmission, limit 8-ns 532-nm laser pulses to ≤ 3 µJ the energy for 50% probability of eye damage) for incident energies as high as 800 µJ.

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© Copyright 1994 Optical Society of America. Received February 3, 1994 This study was supported in part by the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range through an agreement with NASA. D. Alvarez, Jr., acknowledges support from the James Irvine Foundation.


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023