Evidence of Fanning in the Ophiuchus Stream
The Ophiuchus stellar stream presents a dynamical puzzle: its old stellar populations (~12 Gyr) cannot be reconciled with (1) its orbit in a simple model for the Milky Way potential and (2) its short angular extent, both of which imply that the observed stream formed within the last 230 km s^(−1)) against ~40 other stars: their velocities are comparable to those of the stream, but would be exceptional if they were unrelated halo stars. Their positions and velocities are, however, inconsistent with simple extrapolation of the observed cold, high-density portion of the stream. These observations suggest that stream-fanning may be a real, observable effect and, therefore, that Ophiuchus may be on a chaotic orbit. They also show that the Ophiuchus stream is more extended and hence dynamically older than previously thought, easing the stellar population versus dynamical age tension.
Additional Information© 2016 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 October 12; accepted 2015 December 6; published 2015 December 28. B.S. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) ERC Grant Agreement n. . A.P.W. is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 11-44155. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andaluca (CSIC). Facilities: PS1 - Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System Telescope #1 (Pan-STARRS), Keck:I - KECK I Telescope (DEIMOS - ), CAO:3.5m - (TWIN - ).
Published - Sesar_2016pL4.pdf
Submitted - 1512.00469v2.pdf