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Published September 2020 | Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Transparent High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer for Photoacoustic Microscopy Application


We report the development of an optically transparent high-frequency ultrasonic transducer using lithium niobate single-crystal and indium–tin–oxide electrodes with up to 90% optical transmission in the visible-to-near-infrared spectrum. The center frequency of the transducer was at 36.9 MHz with 33.9%, at −6 dB fractional bandwidth. The photoacoustic imaging capability of the fabricated transducer was also demonstrated by successfully imaging a resolution target and mouse-ear vasculatures in vivo , which were irradiated by a 532 nm pulse laser transmitted through the transducer.

Additional Information

© 2020 IEEE. Manuscript received October 24, 2019; accepted March 30, 2020. Date of publication April 3, 2020; date of current version August 27, 2020. This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Institute of Health under Grant R01EY030126, Grant R01HL127271, and Grant U01NS099717. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this article in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is neither intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology nor to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

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Accepted Version - nihms-1624149.pdf


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October 20, 2023