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Published July 12, 2021 | Submitted
Journal Article Open

LIGO detector characterization in the second and third observing runs

Davis, D. ORCID icon
Areeda, J. S.
Berger, B. K.
Bruntz, R.
Effler, A.
Essick, R. C.
Fisher, R. P.
Godwin, P.
Goetz, E.
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.
Hughey, B.
Katsavounidis, E.
Lundgren, A. P.
Macleod, D. M.
Márka, Z.
Massinger, T. J.
Matas, A.
McIver, J.
Mo, G.
Mogushi, K.
Nguyen, P.
Nuttall, L. K.
Schofield, R. M. S.
Shoemaker, D. H.
Soni, S.
Stuver, A. L.
Urban, A. L.
Valdes, G.
Walker, M.
Abbott, R.
Adams, C.
Adhikari, R. X. ORCID icon
Ananyeva, A.
Appert, S.
Arai, K. ORCID icon
Asali, Y.
Aston, S. M.
Austin, C.
Baer, A. M.
Ball, M.
Ballmer, S. W.
Banagiri, S.
Barker, D.
Barschaw, C.
Barsotti, L.
Bartlett, J.
Betzwieser, J.
Beda, R.
Bhattacharjee, D.
Bidler, J.
Billingsley, G. ORCID icon
Biscans, S. ORCID icon
Blair, C. D.
Blair, R. M.
Bode, N.
Booker, P.
Bork, R.
Bramley, A.
Brooks, A. F. ORCID icon
Brown, D. D.
Buikema, A.
Cahillane, C. ORCID icon
Callister, T. A.
Santoro, G. Caneva
Cannon, K. C.
Carlin, J.
Chandra, K.
Chen, X.
Christensen, N.
Ciobanu, A. A.
Clara, F.
Compton, C. M.
Cooper, S. J.
Corley, K. R.
Coughlin, M. W.
Countryman, S. T.
Covas, P. B.
Coyne, D. C. ORCID icon
Crowder, S. G.
Canton, T. Dal
Danila, B.
Datrier, L. E. H.
Davies, G. S.
Dent, T.
Didio, N. A.
Fronzo, C. Di
Dooley, K. L.
Driggers, J. C.
Dupej, P.
Dwyer, S. E.
Etzel, T.
Evans, M.
Evans, T. M.
Fairhurst, S.
Feicht, J.
Fernandez-Galiana, A.
Frey, R.
Fritschel, P.
Frolov, V. V.
Fulda, P.
Fyffe, M.
Gadre, B. U.
Giaime, J. A.
Giardina, K. D.
González, G.
Gras, S.
Gray, C.
Gray, R.
Green, A. C.
Gupta, A. ORCID icon
Gustafson, E. K.
Gustafson, R.
Hanks, J.
Hanson, J.
Hardwick, T.
Harry, I. W.
Hasskew, R. K.
Heintze, M. C.
Heinzel, J.
Holland, N. A.
Hollows, I. J.
Hoy, C. G.
Hughey, S.
Jadhav, S. J.
Janssens, K.
Johns, G.
Jones, J. D.
Kandhasamy, S.
Karki, S.
Kasprzack, M.
Kawabe, K.
Keitel, D.
Kijbunchoo, N.
Kim, Y. M.
King, P. J.
Kissel, J. S.
Kulkarni, S.
Kumar, Rahul
Landry, M.
Lane, B. B.
Lantz, B.
Laxen, M.
Lecoeuche, Y. K.
Leviton, J.
Liu, J.
Lormand, M.
Macas, R.
Macedo, A.
MacInnis, M.
Mandic, V.
Mansell, G. L.
Márka, S.
Martinez, B.
Martinovic, K.
Martynov, D. V.
Mason, K.
Matichard, F. ORCID icon
Mavalvala, N.
McCarthy, R.
McClelland, D. E.
McCormick, S.
McCuller, L.
McIsaac, C.
McRae, T.
Mendell, G.
Merfeld, K.
Merilh, E. L.
Meyers, P. M.
Meylahn, F.
Michaloliakos, I.
Middleton, H.
Mills, J. C.
Mistry, T.
Mittleman, R.
Moreno, G.
Mow-Lowry, C. M.
Mozzon, S.
Mueller, L.
Mukund, N.
Mullavey, A.
Muth, J.
Nelson, T. J. N.
Neunzert, A.
Nichols, S.
Nitoglia, E.
Oberling, J.
Oh, J. J.
Oh, S. H.
Oram, Richard J.
Ormiston, R. G.
Ormsby, N.
Osthelder, C.
Ottaway, D. J.
Overmier, H.
Pai, A.
Palamos, J. R.
Pannarale, F.
Parker, W.
Patane, O.
Patel, M.
Payne, E.
Pele, A.
Penhorwood, R.
Perez, C. J.
Phukon, K. S.
Pillas, M.
Pirello, M.
Radkins, H.
Ramirez, K. E.
Richardson, J. W. ORCID icon
Riles, K.
Rink, K.
Robertson, N. A.
Rollins, J. G. ORCID icon
Romel, C. L.
Romie, J. H.
Ross, M. P.
Ryan, K.
Sadecki, T.
Sakellariadou, M.
Sanchez, E. J.
Sanchez, L. E.
Sandles, L.
Saravanan, T. R.
Savage, R. L.
Schaetzl, D.
Schnabel, R.
Schwartz, E.
Sellers, D.
Shaffer, T.
Sigg, D.
Sintes, A. M.
Slagmolen, B. J. J.
Smith, J. R.
Soni, K.
Sorazu, B.
Spencer, A. P.
Strain, K. A.
Strom, D.
Sun, L. ORCID icon
Szczepańczyk, M. J.
Tasson, J.
Tenorio, R.
Thomas, M.
Thomas, P.
Thorne, K. A.
Toland, K.
Torrie, C. I.
Tran, A.
Traylor, G.
Trevor, M.
Tse, M.
Vajente, G. ORCID icon
Remortel, N. van
Vander-Hyde, D. C.
Vargas, A.
Veitch, J.
Veitch, P. J.
Venkateswara, K.
Venugopalan, G. ORCID icon
Viets, A. D.
Villa-Ortega, V.
Vo, T.
Vorvick, C.
Wade, M.
Wallace, G. S.
Ward, R. L.
Warner, J.
Weaver, B.
Weinstein, A. J. ORCID icon
Weiss, R.
Wette, K.
White, D. D.
White, L. V.
Whittle, C.
Williamson, A. R.
Willke, B.
Wipf, C. C.
Xiao, L. ORCID icon
Xu, R.
Yamamoto, H. ORCID icon
Yu, Hang
Yu, Haocun
Zhang, L. ORCID icon
Zheng, Y.
Zucker, M. E. ORCID icon
Zweizig, J. ORCID icon


The characterization of the Advanced LIGO detectors in the second and third observing runs has increased the sensitivity of the instruments, allowing for a higher number of detectable gravitational-wave signals, and provided confirmation of all observed gravitational-wave events. In this work, we present the methods used to characterize the LIGO detectors and curate the publicly available datasets, including the LIGO strain data and data quality products. We describe the essential role of these datasets in LIGO–Virgo Collaboration analyses of gravitational-waves from both transient and persistent sources and include details on the provenance of these datasets in order to support analyses of LIGO data by the broader community. Finally, we explain anticipated changes in the role of detector characterization and current efforts to prepare for the high rate of gravitational-wave alerts and events in future observing runs.

Additional Information

© 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd. Received 28 January 2021; Revised 31 March 2021; Accepted 30 April 2021; Published 3 June 2021. The authors would like to thank members of the Virgo and KAGRA detector characterization groups who have contributed to an environment of open collaboration that enabled this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, and the Max-Planck-Society (MPS) for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates under cooperative agreement PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under award PHY-0823459. The authors are grateful for computational resources provided by the LIGO Laboratory and supported by National Science Foundation Grants PHY-0757058 and PHY-0823459. This work carries LIGO Document number P2000495. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. Data availability statement. The data that support the findings of this study are available upon reasonable request from the authors.

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