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Published November 13, 2017 | Published
Journal Article Open

Focusing light through scattering media by polarization modulation based generalized digital optical phase conjugation


Optical scattering prevents light from being focused through thick biological tissue at depths greater than ∼1 mm. To break this optical diffusion limit, digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) based wavefront shaping techniques are being actively developed. Previous DOPC systems employed spatial light modulators that modulated either the phase or the amplitude of the conjugate light field. Here, we achieve optical focusing through scattering media by using polarization modulation based generalized DOPC. First, we describe an algorithm to extract the polarization map from the measured scattered field. Then, we validate the algorithm through numerical simulations and find that the focusing contrast achieved by polarization modulation is similar to that achieved by phase modulation. Finally, we build a system using an inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal based spatial light modulator (SLM) and experimentally demonstrate light focusing through 3-mm thick chicken breast tissue. Since the polarization modulation based SLMs are widely used in displays and are having more and more pixel counts with the prevalence of 4 K displays, these SLMs are inexpensive and valuable devices for wavefront shaping.

Additional Information

© 2017 Published by AIP Publishing. Received 19 September 2017; accepted 27 October 2017; published online 16 November 2017. This work was sponsored by NIH Grants Nos. DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), and U01 NS090579 (BRAIN Initiative).

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