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Published March 3, 2014 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

High-speed time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside dynamic scattering media at 793 nm


Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing is an emerging technique that focuses light deep into scattering media by phase-conjugating ultrasonically encoded diffuse light. In previous work, the speed of TRUE focusing was limited to no faster than 1 Hz by the response time of the photorefractive phase conjugate mirror, or the data acquisition and streaming speed of the digital camera; photorefractive-crystal-based TRUE focusing was also limited to the visible spectral range. These time-consuming schemes prevent this technique from being applied in vivo, since living biological tissue has a speckle decorrelation time on the order of a millisecond. In this work, using a Tedoped Sn_2P_2S_6 photorefractive crystal at a near-infrared wavelength of 793 nm, we achieved TRUE focusing inside dynamic scattering media having a speckle decorrelation time as short as 7.7 ms. As the achieved speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step forward toward in vivo applications of TRUE focusing in deep tissue imaging, photodynamic therapy, and optical manipulation.

Additional Information

© 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. This work was sponsored in part by National Institute of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award) as well as National Academies Keck Futures Initiative grant IS 13. L. W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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