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Published June 12, 2019 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Phase Modulation with Electrically Tunable Vanadium Dioxide Phase-Change Metasurfaces


We report a dynamically tunable reflectarray metasurface that continuously modulates the phase of reflected light in the near-infrared wavelength range under active electrical control of the phase transition from semiconducting to semimetallic states. We integrate a vanadium dioxide (VO_2) active layer into the dielectric gap of antenna elements in a reflectarray metasurface, which undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon resistive heating of the metallic patch antenna. The induced phase transition in the VO_2 film strongly perturbs the magnetic dipole resonance supported by the metasurface. By carefully controlling the volume fractions of coexisting metallic and dielectric regions of the VO_2 film, we observe a continuous shift of the phase of the reflected light, with a maximal achievable phase shift as high as 250°. We also observe a reflectance modulation of 23.5% as well as a spectral shift of the resonance position by 175 nm. The metasurface phase modulation is fairly broadband, yielding large phase shifts at multiple operation wavelengths.

Additional Information

© 2019 American Chemical Society. Received: March 26, 2019; Revised: May 21, 2019; Published: May 28, 2019. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics (Y.K., P.C.W., R.S., G.K.S.), the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan under Grant No. 106-2917-I-564-049 (P.C.W.), and the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46405 (K.A.M. and H.A.A.). The authors used facilities supported by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI). Y.K. acknowledges the support from the Kwanjeong Educational Foundation scholarship. Y.K. also thanks J. Wong for help with the heating stage setup and G. Rossman for assistance with the initial FTIR measurements. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

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