Three-dimensional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic imaging of two rabbit esophagi
The addition of photoacoustic endoscopy to conventional endoscopic ultrasound offers imaging capabilities that may improve diagnosis and clinical care of gastrointestinal tract diseases. In this study, using a 3.8-mm diameter dual-mode photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic probe, we investigated photoacoustic and ultrasonic image features of rabbit esophagi. Specifically, we performed ex vivo imaging of intact rabbit esophagi and correlated the acquired images with histology. Without motion artifact-based limitations, we were able to utilize the full resolving power of the endoscopic device and acquire the first three-dimensional vasculature map of the esophagus and mediastinum, along with coregistered tissue density information. Here, we present the experimental results and discuss potential clinical applications of the technique.
Additional Information© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. We thank Prof. James Ballard for his attentive reading of the manuscript. We also thank Lisa Andrews-Kaminsky, Jenny Kalishman, and Suellen Greco for helping with the animal preparation, surgery, and image interpretation. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), and R01 CA159959. L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.
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