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Published March 2, 2021 | Supplemental Material
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Emissions Measurements from Household Solid Fuel Use in Haryana, India: Implications for Climate and Health Co-benefits


A large concern with estimates of climate and health co-benefits of "clean" cookstoves from controlled emissions testing is whether results represent what actually happens in real homes during normal use. A growing body of evidence indicates that in-field emissions during daily cooking activities differ substantially from values obtained in laboratories, with correspondingly different estimates of co-benefits. We report PM_(2.5) emission factors from uncontrolled cooking (n = 7) and minimally controlled cooking tests (n = 51) using traditional chulha and angithi stoves in village kitchens in Haryana, India. Minimally controlled cooking tests (n = 13) in a village kitchen with mixed dung and brushwood fuels were representative of uncontrolled field tests for fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)), organic and elemental carbon (p > 0.5), but were substantially higher than previously published water boiling tests using dung or wood. When the fraction of nonrenewable biomass harvesting, elemental, and organic particulate emissions and modeled estimates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are included in 100 year global warming commitments (GWC₁₀₀), the chulha had a net cooling impact using mixed fuels typical of the region. Correlation between PM_(2.5) emission factors and GWC (R² = 0.99) implies these stoves are climate neutral for primary PM_(2.5) emissions of 8.8 ± 0.7 and 9.8 ± 0.9 g PM_(2.5)/kg dry fuel for GWC₂₀ and GWC₁₀₀, respectively, which is close to the mean for biomass stoves in global emission inventories.

Additional Information

© 2021 American Chemical Society. Received: July 31, 2020; Revised: January 29, 2021; Accepted: February 1, 2021; Published: February 10, 2021. This research was supported by EPA STAR R83503601 − Characterization of Emissions from Small, Variable Solid Fuel Combustion Sources for Determining Global Emissions and Climate Impact and R835425 − Impacts of household sources on outdoor pollution at village and regional scales in India. The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the U.S. EPA. Great thanks also goes to Ajay Pillarisetti, members of the INCLEN Trust International, and all villagers whose participation made the study possible. The U.S. EPA does not endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services mentioned in the publication. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

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